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Feng shui

Feng shui (pinyin:, pronounced is a Chinese philosophical system of harmonizing everyone with the surrounding environment. The term feng shui literally translates as "wind-water" in English. This is a cultural shorthand taken from the passage of the now-lost Classic of Burial recorded in Guo Pu's commentary: Feng shui is one of the Five Arts of Chinese Metaphysics, classified as physiognomy (observation of appearances through formulas and calculations). The feng shui practice discusses architecture in metaphoric terms of "invisible forces" that bind the universe, earth, and humanity together, known as qi.

Historically, feng shui was widely used to orient buildings—often spiritually significant structures such as tombs, but also dwellings and other structures—in an auspicious manner. Depending on the particular style of feng shui being used, an auspicious site could be determined by reference to local features such as bodies of water, stars, or a compass.

Qi rides the wind and scatters, but is retained when encountering water.

Feng shui was suppressed in mainland China during the Cultural Revolution in the 1960s, but since then has increased in popularity.

Modern reactions to feng shui are mixed. The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience states that some principles of feng shui are "quite rational", while noting that "folk remedies and superstitions... [have been] incorporated into feng shui's eclectic mix".

Origins

As of 2013 the Yangshao and Hongshan cultures provide the earliest known evidence for the use of feng shui. Until the invention of the magnetic compass, feng shui apparently relied on astronomy to find correlations between humans and the universe. In 4000 BC, the doors of Banpo dwellings aligned with the asterism Yingshi just after the winter solstice—this sited the homes for solar gain. During the Zhou era, Yingshi was known as Ding and used to indicate the appropriate time to build a capital city, according to the Shijing. The late Yangshao site at Dadiwan (c. 3500-3000 BC) includes a palace-like building (F901) at the center. The building faces south and borders a large plaza. It stands on a north-south axis with another building that apparently housed communal activities. Regional communities may have used the complex.

A grave at Puyang (around 4000 BC) that contains mosaics— actually a Chinese star map of the Dragon and Tiger asterisms and Beidou (the Big Dipper, Ladle or Bushel) — is oriented along a north-south axis. The presence of both round and square shapes in the Puyang tomb, at Hongshan ceremonial centers and at the late Longshan settlement at Lutaigang, suggests that gaitian cosmography (heaven-round, earth-square) existed in Chinese society long before it appeared in the Zhou Bi Suan Jing.

Cosmography that bears a striking resemblance to modern feng shui devices and formulas appears on a piece of jade unearthed at Hanshan and dated around 3000 BC. Archaeologist Li Xueqin links the design to the liuren astrolabe, zhinan zhen, and luopan.

Beginning with palatial structures at Erlitou, all capital cities of China followed rules of feng shui for their design and layout. During the Zhou era, the Kaogong ji (simplified Chinese: traditional Chinese: "Manual of Crafts") codified these rules. The carpenter's manual Lu ban jing (simplified Chinese: traditional Chinese: "Lu ban's manuscript") codified rules for builders. Graves and tombs also followed rules of feng shui, from Puyang to Mawangdui and beyond. From the earliest records, the structures of the graves and dwellings seem to have followed the same rules.

Early instruments and techniques

 

A feng shui spiral at LA Chinatown's Metro station

The history of feng shui covers 3,500+ years before the invention of the magnetic compass. It originated in Chinese astronomy. Some current techniques can be traced to Neolithic China, while others were added later (most notably the Han dynasty, the Tang, the Song, and the Ming).

The astronomical history of feng shui is evident in the development of instruments and techniques. According to the Zhouli, the original feng shui instrument may have been a gnomon. Chinese used circumpolar stars to determine the north-south axis of settlements. This technique explains why Shang palaces at Xiaotun lie 10° east of due north. In some cases, as Paul Wheatley observed, they bisected the angle between the directions of the rising and setting sun to find north. This technique provided the more precise alignments of the Shang walls at Yanshi and Zhengzhou. Rituals for using a feng shui instrument required a diviner to examine current sky phenomena to set the device and adjust their position in relation to the device.

The oldest examples of instruments used for feng shui are liuren astrolabes, also known as shi. These consist of a lacquered, two-sided board with astronomical sightlines. The earliest examples of liuren astrolabes have been unearthed from tombs that date between 278 BC and 209 BC. Along with divination for Da Liu Ren the boards were commonly used to chart the motion of Taiyi through the nine palaces. The markings on a liuren/shi and the first magnetic compasses are virtually identical.

The magnetic compass was invented for feng shui and has been in use since its invention. Traditional feng shui instrumentation consists of the Luopan or the earlier south-pointing spoon (zhinan zhen)—though a conventional compass could suffice if one understood the differences. A feng shui ruler (a later invention) may also be employed.

Foundation theories

The goal of feng shui as practiced today is to situate the human-built environment on spots with good qi. The "perfect spot" is a location and an axis in time.

Qi (ch'i)

 

A traditional turtle-back tomb of southern Fujian, surrounded by an omega-shaped ridge protecting it from the "noxious winds" from the three sides

Qi (pronounced "chee" in English) is a movable positive or negative life force which plays an essential role in feng shui. In feng shui as in Chinese martial arts, it refers to 'energy', in the sense of 'life force' or elan vital. A traditional explanation of qi as it relates to feng shui would include the orientation of a structure, its age, and its interaction with the surrounding environment, including the local microclimates, the slope of the land, vegetation, and soil quality.

The Book of Burial says that burial takes advantage of "vital qi". Wu Yuanyin (Qing dynasty) said that vital qi was "congealed qi", which is the state of qi that engenders life. The goal of feng shui is to take advantage of vital qi by appropriate siting of graves and structures. Some people destroyed graveyards of their enemies to weaken their qi.

One use for a loupan is to detect the flow of qi. Magnetic compasses reflect local geomagnetism which includes geomagnetically induced currents caused by space weather. Professor Max Knoll suggested in a 1951 lecture that qi is a form of solar radiation. As space weather changes over time, and the quality of qi rises and falls over time, feng shui with a compass might be considered a form of divination that assesses the quality of the local environment—including the effects of space weather. Often people with good karma live in land with good qi.

Polarity

Polarity is expressed in feng shui as yin and yang theory. Polarity expressed through yin and yang is similar to a magnetic dipole. That is, it is of two parts: one creating an exertion and one receiving the exertion. Yang acting and yin receiving could be considered an early understanding of chirality. The development of this theory and its corollary, five phase theory (five element theory), have also been linked with astronomical observations of sunspots.

The Five Elements or Forces (wu xing) – which, according to the Chinese, are metal, earth, fire, water, and wood – are first mentioned in Chinese literature in a chapter of the classic Book of History. They play a very important part in Chinese thought: ‘elements’ meaning generally not so much the actual substances as the forces essential to human life. Earth is a buffer, or an equilibrium achieved when the polarities cancel each other. While the goal of Chinese medicine is to balance yin and yang in the body, the goal of feng shui has been described as aligning a city, site, building, or object with yin-yang force fields.

Bagua (eight trigrams)

Two diagrams known as bagua (or pa kua) loom large in feng shui, and both predate their mentions in the Yijing (or I Ching). The Lo (River) Chart (Luoshu) was developed first, and is sometimes associated with Later Heaven arrangement of the bagua. The Luoshu and the River Chart (Hetu, sometimes associated with the Earlier Heaven bagua) are linked to astronomical events of the sixth millennium BC, and with the Turtle Calendar from the time of Yao. The Turtle Calendar of Yao (found in the Yaodian section of the Shangshu or Book of Documents) dates to 2300 BC, plus or minus 250 years.

In Yaodian, the cardinal directions are determined by the marker-stars of the mega-constellations known as the Four Celestial Animals:

East

The Azure Dragon (Spring equinox)—Niao (Bird), α Scorpionis

South

The Vermilion Bird (Summer solstice)—Huo (Fire), α Hydrae

West

The White Tiger (Autumn equinox)—M?o (Hair), η Tauri (the Pleiades)

North

The Black Tortoise (Winter solstice)—X? (Emptiness, Void ), α Aquarii, β Aquarii

The diagrams are also linked with the sifang (four directions) method of divination used during the Shang dynasty. The sifang is much older, however. It was used at Niuheliang, and figured large in Hongshan culture's astronomy. And it is this area of China that is linked to Huangdi, the Yellow Emperor, who allegedly invented the south-pointing spoon (see compass).

Traditional feng shui

Traditional feng shui is an ancient system based upon the observation of heavenly time and earthly space. The literature of ancient China, as well as archaeological evidence, provide some idea of the origins and nature of the original feng shui techniques.

Form School

The Form School is the oldest school of feng shui. Qing Wuzi in the Han dynasty describes it in the "Book of the Tomb" and Guo Pu of the Jin dynasty follows up with a more complete description in The Book of Burial

The Form School was originally concerned with the location and orientation of tombs (Yin House feng shui), which was of great importance. The school then progressed to the consideration of homes and other buildings (Yang House feng shui).

The "form" in Form School refers to the shape of the environment, such as mountains, rivers, plateaus, buildings, and general surroundings. It considers the five celestial animals (phoenix, green dragon, white tiger, black turtle, and the yellow snake), the yin-yang concept and the traditional five elements (Wu Xing: wood, fire, earth, metal, and water).

The Form School analyses the shape of the land and flow of the wind and water to find a place with ideal qi. It also considers the time of important events such as the birth of the resident and the building of the structure.

Compass School

The Compass School is a collection of more recent feng shui techniques based on the eight cardinal directions, each of which is said to have unique qi. It uses the Luopan, a disc marked with formulas in concentric rings around a magnetic compass.

The Compass School includes techniques such as Flying Star and Eight Mansions.

Transmission of traditional feng shui techniques

Aside from the books written throughout history by feng shui masters and students, there is also a strong oral history. In many cases, masters have passed on their techniques only to selected students or relatives.

Current usage of traditional schools

There is no contemporary agreement that one of the traditional schools is most correct. Therefore, modern practitioners of feng shui generally draw from multiple schools in their own practices.

Modern/Western forms of feng shui

More recent forms of feng shui simplify principles that come from the traditional schools, and focus mainly on the use of the bagua.

Aspirations Method

The Eight Life Aspirations style of feng shui is a simple system which coordinates each of the eight cardinal directions with a specific life aspiration or station such as family, wealth, fame, etc., which come from the Bagua government of the eight aspirations. Life Aspirations is not otherwise a geomantic system.

Black Sect

Thomas Lin Yun introduced Black Sect Tantric Buddhism Feng Shui to America in the 1970s. Black Sect is a religion that goes beyond feng shui to include elements of transcendentalism, Taoism and Tibetan Buddhism. Black Sect is concerned mainly with the interior of a building. Instead of orienting the bagua to the compass, it is oriented to the entryway. Each of the eight sectors represent a particular area of one's life.

List of specific feng shui schools

Ti Li (Form School)

Popular Xingshi Pai "forms" methods

  • Luan Tou Pai, Pinyin: luan tou pai, (environmental analysis without using a compass)
  • Xing Xiang Pai, Pinyin: (Imaging forms)
  • Xingfa Pai, Pinyin

Liiqi Pai (Compass School)

Popular Liiqi Pai "Compass" methods

San Yuan Method,

  • Dragon Gate Eight Formation
  • Xuan Kong (time and space methods)
  • Xuan Kong Fei Xing (Flying Stars methods of time and directions)
  • Xuan Kong Da Gua, ("Secret Decree" or 64 gua relationships)
  • Xuan Kong Mi Zi, (Mysterious Space Secret Decree)
  • Xuan Kong Liu Fa, (Mysterious Space Six Techniques)
  • Zi Bai Jue, (Purple White Scroll)

San He Method, (environmental analysis using a compass)

  • Accessing Dragon Methods
  • Ba Zhai, (Eight Mansions)
  • Yang Gong Feng Shui,
  • Water Methods,
  • Local Embrace

Others

  • Yin House Feng Shui, (Feng Shui for the deceased)
  • Four Pillars of Destiny, (a form of hemerology)
  • Zi Wei Dou Shu, (Purple Star Astrology)
  • I-Ching, (Book of Changes)
  • Qi Men Dun Jia, (Mysterious Door Escaping Techniques)
  • Da Liu Ren, (Divination: Big Six Heavenly Yang Water Qi)
  • Tai Yi Shen Shu, (Divination: Tai Yi Magical Calculation Method)
  • Date Selection, (Selection of auspicious dates and times for important events)
  • Chinese Palmistry, (Destiny reading by palm reading)
  • Chinese Face Reading, (Destiny reading by face reading)
  • Major & Minor Wandering Stars (Constellations)
  • Five phases, (relationship of the five phases or wuxing)
  • BTB Black (Hat) Tantric Buddhist Sect (Westernised or Modern methods not based on Classical teachings)
  • Symbolic Feng Shui, (new-age Feng Shui methods that advocate substitution with symbolic (spiritual, appropriate representation of five elements) objects if natural environment or object/s is/are not available or viable)